Metabolic profile of amphetamine and methamphetamine following administration of the drug famprofazone
Greenhill B, Valtier S, Cody JT.
Graduate Program in Clinical Laboratory Sciences,
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences,
University of Texas Health Science Center,
San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA
J Anal Toxicol. 2003 Oct;27(7):479-84.


There are a several drugs that lead to the production of methamphetamine and/or amphetamine in the body which are subsequently excreted in the urine. These drugs raise obvious concerns when interpreting positive amphetamine drug testing results. Famprofazone is an analgesic found in a multi-ingredient medication (Gewodin) used for pain relief. Two Gewodin tablets (50 mg of famprofazone) were administered orally to healthy volunteers with no history of amphetamine, methamphetamine, or famprofazone use. Following administration, urine samples were collected ad lib for up to six days, and pH, specific gravity, and creatinine values were determined. In order to determine the quantitative excretion profile of amphetamine and methamphetamine, samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction, derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ions monitored were 91, 118, 240 for amphetamine and 254, 210, 118 for methamphetamine. Amphetamine-d(6) and methamphetamine-d(11) were used as internal standards. Peak concentrations for amphetamine ranged from 148 to 2271 ng/mL and for methamphetamine 615 to 7361 ng/mL. Concentrations of both compounds peaked between 3 and 7 h post-dose. Amphetamine and methamphetamine could be detected (limit of detection = 5 ng/mL) at 121 and 143 h post-dose, respectively. Using a cutoff of 500 ng/mL, all subjects had individual urine samples that tested positive. One subject had 14 samples above the cutoff with the last positive being detected over 48 h post-dose. The profile of methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers was also determined using liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization with N-trifluoroacetyl-l-prolyl chloride and analysis by GC-MS. Data showed the famprofazone metabolites amphetamine and methamphetamine to be both d- and l-enantiomers. The proportion of l-methamphetamine exceeded that of its d-enantiomer from the first sample collected. Initially, the proportion was approximately 70% l-methamphetamine and this proportion increased over time. Amphetamine results showed l- and d-amphetamine were virtually the same in the early samples with the proportion of l-amphetamine increasing as time progressed. Forensic interpretation of drug testing results is a challenging critical part of forensic drug testing area because of the potential repercussions the results found may have on an individual's life. The finding of each enantiomers by itself differentiates famprofazone use from the most commonly abused form of methamphetamine and all medicinal methamphetamine available in the U.S., which is either d-methamphetamine (prescription medication) or l-methamphetamine (Vicks inhaler). Coupling this information with the concentrations of amphetamine and methamphetamine helps to determine the potential for use of this drug.
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